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Q. Where does radioactive waste come from?


A. In South Africa radioactive waste has been produced or is still being produced by

  The nuclear fuel cycle:

         NECSA’s nuclear fuel production facilities: i.e. conversion, enrichment

         and fuel fabrication plants that produced radioactive wastes until 1997, at

         which time the last of these facilities were decommissioned.  Presently

         waste is produced as a result of the decommissioning of these facilities.


          Eskom’s Koeberg nuclear power plant produces spent fuel and

         operational radioactive waste.


    Research and development facilities 

NECSA’s Safari research reactor at Pelindaba produces spent fuel and operational waste.  Radioactive waste is produced from radio-isotopes production activities at NECSA. The National Accelerator Centre (NAC) also produces radioactive waste. Historically waste has been produced by various research activities.

   Mining and minerals processing industry

         Naturally occurring radioactive waste materials (NORM) are produced by

         various facilities in the mining and minerals processing industry.


      Commercial and Industrial users

         Radioactive wastes are produced from various applications of radioactive materials in industry and the medical  sector.